Update on Cadence 1.0

Updates

Dec 13th, 2023: We have now published the plan to release Cadence 1.0 - please have a look at this forum post: Cadence 1.0 Upgrade Plan

Dec 20th, 2023: We have released preview release. Find the updated installation instructions below.

Feb 1, 2024: We have released a new preview release.

Feb 23, 2024: We have released another preview release.

Feb 26, 2024: The Cadence 1.0 preview CLI releases can now be installed more easily, in parallel with the current CLI, by following the new installation instructions below: Update on Cadence 1.0 - #11 by jribbink


In January 2022 the Cadence team shared their thoughts on the Path to Stable Cadence (aka Cadence 1.0).

The team has come a long way since: We have released the Secure Cadence milestone, which introduced huge security improvements and enabled permissionless deployment on Flow Mainnet in summer 2022, while we continued working on the Cadence 1.0 milestone and other language features and improvements.

In this post we would like to update you on the progress that has been made, what you can expect when it is released, and how you can start preparing for the upgrade.

We want to give all builders on Flow time to learn about the new features and improvements that are coming with Cadence 1.0, and give them enough time to migrate and test their dapps.

We estimate that the earliest launch of Cadence 1.0 is Q1 2024. We will be posting more regular updates now that we are nearing completion, and once the release candidate is out we will start focusing on supporting the community with migrating their dapps.

We will launch Cadence 1.0 as soon as we can, but not before the developer community on Flow is ready for it.

We would like to thank all community members for their feedback and contributions – it would be much harder without you!

For each topic, we’ll go over the following:

  • :bulb: Motivation: Why was this done, and why should you care?
  • :information_source: Description: What is the improvement / feature, how will dapps benefit from it, and what needs to change as a result?
  • :arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption: How do I need to update my programs to take advantage of these improvements?

:dizzy: New features

View Functions added

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

View functions allow developers to improve the reliability and safety of their programs, and helps them to reason about the effects of their and the programs of others.

Developers can mark their functions as view, which disallows the function from performing state changes. That also makes the intent of functions clear to other programmers, as it allows them to distinguish between functions that change state and ones that do not.

:information_source: Description

Cadence has added support for annotating functions with the view keyword, which enforces that no “mutating” operations occur inside the body of the function. The view keyword is placed before the fun keyword in a function declaration or function expression.

If a function has no view annotation, it is considered “non-view”, and users should encounter no difference in behavior in these functions from what they are used to.

If a function does have a view annotation, then the following mutating operations are not allowed:

  • Writing to, modifying, or destroying any resources
  • Writing to or modifying any references
  • Assigning to or modifying any variables that cannot be determined to have been created locally inside of the view function in question. In particular, this means that captured and global variables cannot be written in these functions
  • Calling a non-view function

This feature was proposed in FLIP 1056. To learn more, please consult the FLIP and documentation.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

You can adopt view functions by adding the view modifier to all functions that do not perform mutating operations.

:sparkles: Example

Before:

The function getCount of a hypothetical NFT collection returns the number of NFTs in the collection.

access(all)
resource Collection {

    access(all)
    var ownedNFTs: @{UInt64: NonFungibleToken.NFT}

    init () {
        self.ownedNFTs <- {}
    }

    access(all)
    fun getCount(): Int {
        return self.ownedNFTs.length
    }

    /* ... rest of implementation ... */
}

After:

The function getCount does not perform any state changes, it only reads the length of the collection and returns it. Therefore it can be marked as view.

    access(all)
    view fun getCount(): Int {
//  ^^^^ added
        return self.ownedNFTs.length
    }

Interface Inheritance added

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Previously, interfaces could not inherit from other interfaces, which required developers to repeat code.

Interface inheritance allows code abstraction and code reuse.

:information_source: Description and :sparkles: example

Interfaces can now inherit from other interfaces of the same kind. This makes it easier for developers to structure their conformances and reduces a lot of redundant code.

For example, suppose there are two resource interfaces Receiver and Vault, and suppose all implementations of the Vault would also need to conform to the interface Receiver.

Previously, there was no way to enforce this. Anyone who implements the Vault would have to explicitly specify that their concrete type also implements the Receiver. But it was not always guaranteed that all implementations would follow this informal agreement.

With interface inheritance, the Vault interface can now inherit/conform to the Receiver interface.

access(all)
resource interface Receiver {

    access(all)
    fun deposit(_ something: @AnyResource)
}

access(all)
resource interface Vault: Receiver {
    access(all)
    fun withdraw(_ amount: Int): @Vault
}

Thus, anyone implementing the Vault interface would also have to implement the Receiver interface as well.

access(all)
resource MyVault: Vault {

    // Required!
    access(all)
    fun withdraw(_ amount: Int): @Vault {}

    // Required!
    access(all)
    fun deposit(_ something: @AnyResource) {}
}

This feature was proposed in FLIP 40. To learn more, please consult the FLIP and documentation.

:zap: Breaking Improvements

Many of the improvements of Cadence 1.0 are fundamentally changing how Cadence works and how it is used. However, that also means it is necessary to break existing code to release this version, which will guarantee stability (no more planned breaking changes) going forward.

Once Cadence 1.0 is live, breaking changes will simply not be acceptable.

So we have, and need to use, this last chance to fix and improve Cadence, so it can deliver on its promise of being a language that provides security and safety, while also providing composability and simplicity.

We very much understand that it is painful for developers to have their code get broken and require them to update it.

However, we believe that the pain is worth it, given the significant improvements that make Cadence development significantly more powerful and pleasant, and enabling developers to for write and deploy immutable contracts.

The improvements were intentionally bundled into one release to avoid breaking Cadence programs multiple times.

Conditions No Longer Allow State Changes

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

In the current version of Cadence, pre-conditions and post-conditions may perform state changes, e.g. by calling a function that performs a mutation. This may result in unexpected behavior, which might lead to bugs.

To make conditions predictable, they are no longer allowed to perform state changes.

:information_source: Description

Pre-conditions and post-conditions are now considered view contexts, meaning that any operations that would be prevented inside of a view function are also not permitted in a pre-condition or post-condition.

This is to prevent underhanded code wherein a user modifies global or contract state inside of a condition, where they are meant to simply be asserting properties of that state.

In particular, since only expressions were permitted inside conditions already, this means that if users wish to call any functions in conditions, these functions must now be made view functions.

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 1056. To learn more, please consult the FLIP and documentation.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Conditions which perform mutations will now result in the error “Impure operation performed in view context”.

Adjust the code in the condition so it does not perform mutations.

The condition may be considered mutating, because it calls a mutating, i.e. non-view function. It might be possible to mark the called function as view, and the body of the function may need to get updated in turn.

:sparkles: Example

Before:

The function withdraw of a hypothetical NFT collection interface allows the withdrawal of an NFT with a specific ID. In its post-condition, the function states that at the end of the function, the collection should have exactly one fewer item than at the beginning of the function.

access(all)
resource interface Collection {

    access(all)
    fun getCount(): Int

    access(all)
    fun withdraw(id: UInt64): @NFT {
        post {
            getCount() == before(getCount()) - 1
        }
    }

    /* ... rest of interface ... */
}

After:

The calls to getCount in the post-condition are not allowed and result in the error “Impure operation performed in view context”, because the getCount function is considered a mutating function, as it does not have the view modifier.

Here, as the getCount function only performs a read-only operation and does not change any state, it can be marked as view.

    access(all)
    view fun getCount(): Int
//  ^^^^

Missing or Incorrect Argument Labels Get Reported

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Previously, missing or incorrect argument labels of function calls were not reported.

This had the potential to confuse developers or readers of programs, and could potentially lead to bugs.

:information_source: Description

Function calls with missing argument labels are now reported with the error message “missing argument label”, and function calls with incorrect argument labels are now reported with the error message “incorrect argument label”.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Function calls with missing argument labels should be updated to include the required argument labels.

Function calls with incorrect argument labels should be fixed by providing the correct argument labels.

:sparkles: Example

Contract TestContract deployed at address 0x1:

access(all)
contract TestContract {

    access(all)
    struct TestStruct {

        access(all)
        let a: Int

        access(all)
        let b: String

        init(first: Int, second: String) {
            self.a = first
            self.b = second
        }
    }
}

Incorrect program:

The initializer of TestContract.TestStruct expects the argument labels first and second.

However, the call of the initializer provides the incorrect argument label wrong for the first argument, and is missing the label for the second argument.

// Script
import TestContract from 0x1

access(all)
fun main() {
    TestContract.TestStruct(wrong: 123, "abc")
}

This now results in the following errors:

error: incorrect argument label
  --> script:4:34
   |
 4 |           TestContract.TestStruct(wrong: 123, "abc")
   |                                   ^^^^^ expected `first`, got `wrong`

error: missing argument label: `second`
  --> script:4:46
   |
 4 |           TestContract.TestStruct(wrong: 123, "abc")
   |                                               ^^^^^

Corrected program:

// Script
import TestContract from 0x1

access(all)
fun main() {
    TestContract.TestStruct(first: 123, second: "abc")
}

We would like to thank community member justjoolz for reporting this bug.

Incorrect Operators in Reference Expressions Get Reported

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Previously, incorrect operators in reference expressions were not reported.

This had the potential to confuse developers or readers of programs, and could potentially lead to bugs.

:information_source: Description

The syntax for reference expressions is &v as &T, which represents taking a reference to value v as type T.

Reference expressions that used other operators, such as as? and as!, e.g. &v as! &T, were incorrect and were previously not reported as an error.

The syntax for reference expressions improved to just &v. The type of the resulting reference must still be provided explicitly.

If the type is not explicitly provided, the error “cannot infer type from reference expression: requires an explicit type annotation” is reported.

For example, existing expressions like &v as &T provide an explicit type, as they statically assert the type using as &T. Such expressions thus keep working and do not have to be changed.

Another way to provide the type for the reference is by explicitly typing the target of the expression, for example, in a variable declaration, e.g. via let ref: &T = &v.

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 941. To learn more, please consult the FLIP and documentation.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Reference expressions which use an operator other than as need to be changed to use the as operator.

In cases where the type is already explicit, the static type assertion (as &T) can be removed.

:sparkles: Example

Incorrect program:

The reference expression uses the incorrect operator as!.

let number = 1
let ref = &number as! &Int

This now results in the following error:

error: cannot infer type from reference expression: requires an explicit type annotation
 --> test:3:17
  |
3 |       let ref = &number as! &Int
  |                  ^

Corrected program:

let number = 1
let ref = &number as &Int

Alternatively, the same code can now also be written as follows:

let number = 1
let ref: &Int = &number

Naming Rules Got Tightened

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Previously, Cadence allowed language keywords (e.g. continue, for, etc.) to be used as names. For example, the following program was allowed:

fun continue(import: Int, break: String) { ... }

This had the potential to confuse developers or readers of programs, and could potentially lead to bugs.

:information_source: Description

Most language keywords are no longer allowed to be used as names.

Some keywords are still allowed to be used as names, as they have limited significance within the language. These allowed keywords are as follows:

  • from: only used in import statements import foo from ...
  • account: used in access modifiers access(account) let ...
  • all: used in access modifier access(all) let ...
  • view: used as modifier for function declarations and expressions view fun foo()..., let f = view fun () ...

Any other keywords will raise an error during parsing, such as:

let break: Int = 0
//  ^ error: expected identifier after start of variable declaration, got keyword break

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Names which use language keywords must be renamed.

:sparkles: Example

Before:

A variable is named after a language keyword.

let contract = signer.borrow<&MyContract>(name: "MyContract")
//  ^ error: expected identifier after start of variable declaration, got keyword contract

After:

The variable is renamed to avoid the clash with the language keyword.

let myContract = signer.borrow<&MyContract>(name: "MyContract")

Result of toBigEndianBytes() for U?Int(128|256) Fixed

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Previously, the implementation of .toBigEndianBytes() was incorrect for the large integer types Int128, Int256, UInt128, and UInt256.

This had the potential to confuse developers or readers of programs, and could potentially lead to bugs.

:information_source: Description

Calling the toBigEndianBytes function on smaller sized integer types returns the exact number of bytes that fit into the type, left-padded with zeros. For instance, Int64(1).toBigEndianBytes() returns an array of 8 bytes, as the size of Int64 is 64 bits, 8 bytes.

Previously, the toBigEndianBytes function erroneously returned variable-length byte arrays without padding for the large integer types Int128, Int256, UInt128, and UInt256. This was inconsistent with the smaller fixed-size numeric types, such as Int8, and Int32.

To fix this inconsistency, Int128 and UInt128 now always return arrays of 16 bytes, while Int256 and UInt256 return 32 bytes.

:sparkles: Example

let someNum: UInt128 = 123456789
let someBytes: [UInt8] = someNum.toBigEndianBytes()
// OLD behavior:
// someBytes = [7, 91, 205, 21]

// NEW behavior:
// someBytes = [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 7, 91, 205, 21]

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Programs that use toBigEndianBytes directly, or indirectly by depending on other programs, should be checked for how the result of the function is used. It might be necessary to adjust the code to restore existing behavior.

If a program relied on the previous behavior of truncating the leading zeros, then the old behavior can be recovered by first converting to a variable-length type, Int or UInt, as the toBigEndianBytes function retains the variable-length byte representations, i.e. the result has no padding bytes.

let someNum: UInt128 = 123456789
let someBytes: [UInt8] = UInt(someNum).toBigEndianBytes()
// someBytes = [7, 91, 205, 21]

Syntax for Function Types Improved

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Previously, function types were expressed using a different syntax from function declarations or expressions. The previous syntax was unintuitive for developers, making it hard to write and read code that used function types.

:information_source: Description and :sparkles: examples

Function types are now expressed using the fun keyword, just like expressions and declarations. This improves readability and makes function types more obvious.

For example, given the following function declaration:

fun foo(n: Int8, s: String): Int16 { /* ... */ }

The function foo now has the type fun(Int8, String): Int16.

The : token is right-associative, so functions that return other functions can have their types written without nested parentheses:

fun curriedAdd(_ x: Int): fun(Int): Int {
  return fun(_ y: Int): Int {
    return x + y
  }
}
// function `curriedAdd` has the type `fun(Int): fun(Int): Int`

To further bring the syntax for function types closer to the syntax of function declarations expressions, it is now possible to omit the return type, in which case the return type defaults to Void.

fun logTwice(_ value: AnyStruct) { // Return type is implicitly `Void`
  log(value)
  log(value)
}

// The function types of these variables are equivalent
let logTwice1: fun(AnyStruct): Void = logTwice
let logTwice2: fun(AnyStruct) = logTwice

As a bonus consequence, it is now allowed for any type to be parenthesized. This is useful for complex type signatures, or for expressing optional functions:

// A function that returns an optional Int16
let optFun1: fun (Int8): Int16? =
    fun (_: Int8): Int? { return nil }

// An optional function that returns an Int16
let optFun2: (fun (Int8): Int16)? = nil

This improvement was proposed in ****FLIP 43.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Programs that use the old function type syntax need to be updated by replacing the surrounding parentheses of function types with the fun keyword.

Before:

let baz: ((Int8, String): Int16) = foo
      // ^                     ^
      // surrounding parentheses of function type

After:

let baz: fun (Int8, String): Int16 = foo

Entitlements and Safe Down-casting

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Previously, Cadence’s main access-control mechanism, restricted reference types, has been a source of confusion and mistakes for contract developers.

Developers new to Cadence often were surprised and did not understand why access-restricted functions, like the withdraw function of the fungible token Vault resource type, were declared as pub, making the function publicly accessible – access would later be restricted through a restricted type.

It was too easy to accidentally give out a Capability with a more permissible type than intended, leading to security problems.

Additionally, because what fields and functions were available to a reference depended on what the type of the reference was, references could not be downcast, leading to ergonomic issues.

:information_source: Description

Access control has improved significantly.

When giving another user a reference or Capability to a value you own, the fields and functions that the user can access is determined by the type of the reference or Capability.

Previously, access to a value of type T, e.g. via a reference &T, would give access to all fields and functions of T. Access could be restricted, by using a restricted type. For example, a restricted reference &T{I} could only access members that were pub on I. Since references could not be downcast, any members defined on T but not on I were unavailable to this reference, even if they were pub.

Access control is now handled using a new feature called Entitlements, as originally proposed across **FLIP 54** and FLIP 94.

A reference can now be “entitled” to certain facets of an object. For example, the reference auth(Withdraw) &Vault is entitled to access fields and functions of Vault which require the Withdraw entitlement.

Entitlements can be are declared using the new entitlement syntax.

Members can be made to require entitlements using the access modifier syntax access(E), where E is an entitlement that the user must posses.

For example:

entitlement Withdraw

access(Withdraw)
fun withdraw(amount: UFix64): @Vault

References can now always be down-casted, the standalone auth modifier is not necessary anymore, and got removed.

For example, the reference &{Provider} can now be downcast to &Vault, so access control is now handled entirely through entitlements, rather than types.

To learn more, please refer to the documentation.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

The access modifiers of fields and functions need to be carefully audited and updated.

Fields and functions that have the pub access modifier are now callable by anyone with any reference to that type. If access to the member should be restricted, the pub access modifier needs to be replaced with an entitlement access modifier.

When creating a Capability or a reference to a value, it must be carefully considered which entitlements are provided to the recipient of that Capability or reference – only the entitlements which are necessary and not more should be include in the auth modifier of the reference type.

:sparkles: Example

Before:

The Vault resource was originally written like so:


access(all)
resource interface Provider {

    access(all)
    fun withdraw(amount: UFix64): @Vault {
        // ...
    }
}

access(all)
resource Vault: Provider, Receiver, Balance {
    access(all)
    fun withdraw(amount: UFix64): @Vault {
        // ...
    }

    access(all)
    fun deposit(from: @Vault) {
       // ...
    }

    access(all)
    var balance: UFix64
}

After:
The Vault resource might now be written like this:

entitlement Withdraw

access(all)
resource interface Provider {

    access(Withdraw)
    fun withdraw(amount: UFix64): @Vault {
        // ...
    }
}

access(all)
resource Vault: Provider, Receiver, Balance {

    access(Withdraw)  // withdrawal requires permission
    fun withdraw(amount: UFix64): @Vault {
        // ...
    }

    access(all)
    fun deposit(from: @Vault) {
       // ...
    }

    access(all)
    var balance: UFix64
}

Here, the access(Withdraw) syntax means that a reference to Vault must possess the Withdraw entitlement in order to be allowed to call the withdraw function, which can be given when a reference or Capability is created by using a new syntax: auth(Withdraw) &Vault.

This would allow developers to safely downcast &{Provider} references to &Vault references if they want to access functions like deposit and balance, without enabling them to call withdraw.

pub and priv Access Modifiers Got Removed

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

With the previously mentioned entitlements feature, which uses access(E) syntax to denote entitled access, the pub, priv and pub(set) modifiers became the only access modifiers that did not use the access syntax.

This made the syntax inconsistent, making it harder to read and understand programs.

In addition, pub and priv already had alternatives/equivalents: access(all) and access(self).

:information_source: Description

The pub, priv and pub(set) access modifiers got removed from the language, in favor of their more explicit access(all) and access(self) equivalents (for pub and priv, respectively).

This makes access modifiers more uniform and better match the new entitlements syntax.

This improvement was originally proposed in FLIP 84.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Users should replace any pub modifiers with access(all), and any priv modifiers with access(self).

Fields that were defined as pub(set) will no longer be publicly assignable, and no access modifier now exists that replicates this old behavior. If the field should stay publicly assignable, a access(all) setter function that updates the field needs to be added, and users have to switch to using it instead of directly assigning to the field.

:sparkles: Example

Before:

Types and members could be declared with pub and priv:

pub resource interface Collection {

    pub fun getCount(): Int

    priv fun myPrivateFunction()

    pub(set) let settableInt: Int

    /* ... rest of interface ... */
}

After:
The same behavior can be achieved with access(all) and access(self)

access(all)
resource interface Collection {

    access(all)
    fun getCount(): Int

    access(self)
		fun myPrivateFunction()

    access(all)
    let settableInt: Int

    access(all)
    let setIntValue(_ i: Int): Int

    /* ... rest of interface ... */
}

Restricted Types Got Replaced with Intersection Types

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

With the improvements to access control enabled by entitlements and safe down-casting, the restricted type feature is redundant.

:information_source: Description

Restricted types have been removed. All types, including references, can now be down-casted, restricted types are no longer used for access control.

At the same time intersection types got introduced. Intersection types have the syntax {I1, I2, ... In}, where all elements of the set of types (I1, I2, ... In) are interface types. A value is part of the intersection type if it conforms to all the interfaces in the intersection type’s interface set. This functionality is equivalent to restricted types that restricted AnyStruct and AnyResource.

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 85. To learn more, please consult the FLIP and documentation.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Code that relies on the restriction behavior of restricted types can be safely changed to just use the concrete type directly, as entitlements will make this safe. For example, &Vault{Balance} can be replaced with just &Vault, as access to &Vault only provides access to safe operations, like getting the balance – privileged operations, like withdrawal, need additional entitlements.

Code that uses AnyStruct or AnyResource explicitly as the restricted type, e.g. in a reference, &AnyResource{I}, needs to remove the use of AnyStruct / AnyResource. Code that already uses the syntax &{I} can stay as-is.

:sparkles: Example

Before:

This function accepted a reference to a T value, but restricted what functions were allowed to be called on it to those defined on the X, Y, and Z interfaces.

access(all)
resource interface X {
		access(all)
    fun foo()
}

access(all)
resource interface Y {
		access(all)
    fun bar()
}

access(all)
resource interface Z {
		access(all)
    fun baz()
}

access(all)
resource T: X, Y, Z {
   // implement interfaces

	access(all)
  fun qux() {
      // ...
  }
}

access(all)
fun exampleFun(param: &T{X, Y, Z}) {
    // `param` cannot call `qux` here, because it is restricted to
    // `X`, `Y` and `Z`.
}

After:
This function can be safely rewritten as:

access(all)
resource interface X {
		access(all)
    fun foo()
}

access(all)
resource interface Y {
		access(all)
    fun bar()
}

resource interface Z {
		access(all)
    fun baz()
}

access(all)
entitlement Q

access(all)
resource T: X, Y, Z {
   // implement interfaces

	access(Q)
  fun qux() {
      // ...
  }
}

access(all)
fun exampleFun(param: &T) {
    // `param` still cannot call `qux` here, because it lacks entitlement `Q`
}

Any functions on T that the author of T does not want users to be able to call publicly should be defined with entitlements, and thus will not be accessible to the unauthorized param reference, like with qux above.

Account Access Got Improved

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Previously, access to accounts was granted wholesale: Users would sign a transaction, authorizing the code of the transaction to perform any kind of operation, for example, write to storage, but also add keys or contracts.

Users had to trust that a transaction would only perform supposed access, e.g. storage access to withdraw tokens, but still had to grant full access, which would allow the transaction to perform other operations.

Dapp developers who require users to sign transactions should be able to request the minimum amount of access to perform the intended operation, i.e. developers should be able to follow the principle of least privilege (PoLA).

This allows users to trust the transaction and Dapp.

:information_source: Description

Previously, access to accounts was provided through the built-in types AuthAccount and PublicAccount: AuthAccount provided full write access to an account, whereas PublicAccount only provided read access.

With the introduction of entitlements, this access is now expressed using entitlements and references, and only a single Account type is necessary. In addition, storage related functionality were moved to the field Account.storage.

Access to administrative account operations, such as writing to storage, adding keys, or adding contracts, is now gated by both coarse grained entitlements (e.g. Storage, which grants access to all storage related functions, and Keys, which grants access to all key management functions), as well as fine-grained entitlements (e.g. SaveValue to save a value to storage, or AddKey to add a new key to the account).

Transactions can now request the particular entitlements necessary to perform the operations in the transaction.

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 92. To learn more, consult the FLIP and the documentation.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Code that previously used PublicAccount can simply be replaced with an unauthorized account reference, &Account.

Code that previously used AuthAccount must be replaced with an authorized account reference. Depending on what functionality of the account is accessed, the appropriate entitlements have to be specified.

For example, if the save function of AuthAccount was used before, the function call must be replaced with storage.save, and the SaveValue or Storage entitlement is required.

:sparkles: Example

Before:

The transactions wants to save a value to storage. It must request access to the whole account, even though it does not need access beyond writing to storage.

transaction {
    prepare(signer: AuthAccount) {
        signer.save("Test", to: /storage/test)
    }
}

After:

The transaction requests the fine-grained account entitlement SaveValue, which allows the transaction to call the save function.

transaction {
    prepare(signer: auth(SaveValue) &Account) {
        signer.storage.save("Test", to: /storage/test)
    }
}

If the transaction attempts to perform other operations, such as adding a new key, it is rejected:

transaction {
    prepare(signer: auth(SaveValue) &Account) {
        signer.storage.save("Test", to: /storage/test)
        signer.keys.add(/* ... */)
        //          ^^^ Error: Cannot call function, requires `AddKey` or `Keys` entitlement
    }
}

Deprecated Key Management API Got Removed

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Cadence provides two key management APIs:

  • The original, low-level API, which worked with RLP-encoded keys
  • The improved, high-level API, which works with convenient data types like PublicKey, HashAlgorithm, and SignatureAlgorithm

The improved API was introduced, as the original API was difficult to use and error-prone.

The original API was deprecated in early 2022.

:information_source: Description

The original account key management API, got removed. Instead, the improved key management API should be used.

To learn more,

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Replace uses of the original account key management API functions with equivalents of the improved API:

Removed Replacement
AuthAccount.addPublicKey Account.keys.add
AuthAccount.removePublicKey Account.keys.revoke

To learn more, please refer to the documentation.

:sparkles: Example

Before:

transaction(encodedPublicKey: [UInt8]) {
    prepare(signer: AuthAccount) {
        signer.addPublicKey(encodedPublicKey)
    }
}

After:

transaction(publicKey: [UInt8]) {
    prepare(signer: auth(Keys) &Account) {
        signer.keys.add(
            publicKey: PublicKey(
                publicKey: publicKey,
                signatureAlgorithm: SignatureAlgorithm.ECDSA_P256
            ),
            hashAlgorithm: HashAlgorithm.SHA3_256,
            weight: 100.0
        )
    }
}

Resource Tracking for Optional Bindings Improved

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:bulb: Motivation

Previously, resource tracking for optional bindings (”if-let statements”) was implemented incorrectly, leading to errors for valid code.

This required developers to add workarounds to their code.

:information_source: Description

Resource tracking for optional bindings (”if-let statements”) was fixed.

For example, the following program used to be invalid, reporting a resource loss error for optR:

resource R {}

fun asOpt(_ r: @R): @R? {
    return <-r
}

fun test() {
    let r <- create R()
    let optR <- asOpt(<-r)
    if let r2 <- optR {
        destroy r2
    }
}

This program is now considered valid.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

New programs do not need workarounds anymore, and can be written naturally.

Programs that previously resolved the incorrect resource loss error with a workaround, for example by invalidating the resource also in the else-branch or after the if-statement, are now invalid:

fun test() {
    let r <- create R()
    let optR <- asOpt(<-r)
    if let r2 <- optR {
        destroy r2
    } else {
        destroy optR
        // unnecessary, but added to avoid error
    }
}

The unnecessary workaround needs to be removed.

Definite Return Analysis Got Improved

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:bulb: Motivation

Definite return analysis determines if a function always exits, in all possible execution paths, e.g. through a return statement, or by calling a function that never returns, like panic.

This analysis was incomplete and required developers to add workarounds to their code.

:information_source: Description

The definite return analysis got significantly improved.

This means that the following program is now accepted: both branches of the if-statement exit, one using a return statement, the other using a function that never returns, panic:

resource R {}

fun mint(id: UInt64): @R {
    if id > 100 {
        return <- create R()
    } else {
        panic("bad id")
    }
}

The program above was previously rejected with a “missing return statement” error – even though we can convince ourselves that the function will exit in both branches of the if-statement, and that any code after the if-statement is unreachable, the type checker was not able to detect that – it now does.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

New programs do not need workarounds anymore, and can be written naturally.

Programs that previously resolved the incorrect error with a workaround, for example by adding an additional exit at the end of the function, are now invalid:

resource R {}

fun mint(id: UInt64): @R {
    if id > 100 {
        return <- create R()
    } else {
        panic("bad id")
    }

    // unnecessary, but added to avoid error
    panic("unreachable")
}

The improved type checker now detects and reports the unreachable code after the if-statement as an error:

error: unreachable statement
  --> test.cdc:12:4
   |
12 |     panic("unreachable")
   |     ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
exit status 1

To make the code valid, simply remove the unreachable code.

Semantics for Variables in For-Loop Statements Got Improved

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:bulb: Motivation

Previously, the iteration variable of for-in loops was re-assigned on each iteration.

Even though this is a common behavior in many programming languages, it is surprising behavior and a source of bugs.

The behavior was improved to the often assumed/expected behavior of a new iteration variable being introduced for each iteration, which reduces the likelihood for a bug.

:information_source: Description

The behavior of for-in loops improved, so that a new iteration variable is introduced for each iteration.

This change only affects few programs, as the behavior change is only noticeable if the program captures the iteration variable in a function value (closure).

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 13. To learn more, consult the FLIP and documentation.

:sparkles: Example

Previously, values would result in [3, 3, 3], which might be surprising and unexpected. This is because x was reassigned the current array element on each iteration, leading to each function in fs returning the last element of the array.

// Capture the values of the array [1, 2, 3]
let fs: [((): Int)] = []
for x in [1, 2, 3] {
    // Create a list of functions that return the array value
    fs.append(fun (): Int {
        return x
    })
}

// Evaluate each function and gather all array values
let values: [Int] = []
for f in fs {
    values.append(f())
}

References to Resource-Kinded Values Get Invalidated When the Referenced Values Are Moved

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:bulb: Motivation

Previously, when a reference is taken to a resource, that reference remains valid even if the resource was moved, for example when created and moved into an account, or moved from one account into another.

In other words, references to resources stayed alive forever. This could be a potential safety foot-gun, where one could gain/give/retain unintended access to resources through references.

:information_source: Description

References are now invalidated if the referenced resource is moved after the reference was taken. The reference is invalidated upon the first move, regardless of the origin and the destination.

This feature was proposed in FLIP 1043. To learn more, please consult the FLIP and documentation.

:sparkles: Example

// Create a resource.
let r <-create R()

// And take a reference.
let ref = &r as &R

// Then move the resource into an account.
account.save(<-r, to: /storage/r)

// Update the reference.
ref.id = 2

Old behavior:

// This will also update the referenced resource in the account.
ref.id = 2

The above operation will now result in a static error.

// Trying to update/access the reference will produce a static error:
//     "invalid reference: referenced resource may have been moved or destroyed"
ref.id = 2

However, not all scenarios can be detected statically. e.g:

fun test(ref: &R) {
    ref.id = 2
}

In the above function, it is not possible to determine whether the resource to which the reference was taken has been moved or not. Therefore, such cases are checked at run-time, and a run-time error will occur if the resource has been moved.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Review code that uses references to resources, and check for cases where the referenced resource is moved. Such code may now be reported as invalid, or result in the program being aborted with an error when a reference to a moved resource is de-referenced.

Capability Controller API Replaced Existing Linking-based Capability API

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:bulb: Motivation

Cadence encourages a capability-based security model. Capabilities are themselves a new concept that most Cadence programmers need to understand.

The existing API for capabilities was centered around “links” and “linking”, and the associated concepts of the public and private storage domains, led to capabilities being even confusing and awkward to use.

An better API is easier to understand and easier to work with.

:information_source: Description

The existing linking-based capability API has been replaced by a more powerful and easier to use API based on the notion of Capability Controllers. The new API makes the creation of new and the revocation of existing capabilities simpler.

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 798. To learn more, consult the FLIP and the documentation.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Existing uses of the linking-based capability API must be replaced with the new Capability Controller API.

Removed Replacement
AuthAccount.link, with private path Account.capabilities.storage.issue
AuthAccount.link, with public path Account.capabilities.storage.issue and Account.capabilities.publish
AuthAccount.linkAccount AuthAccount.capabilities.account.issue
AuthAccount.unlink, with private path - Get capability controller: Account.capabilities.storage/account.get
  • Revoke controller: Storage/AccountCapabilityController.delete |
    | AuthAccount.unlink, with public path | - Get capability controller: Account.capabilities.storage/account.get
  • Revoke controller: Storage/AccountCapabilityController.delete
  • Unpublish capability:
    Account.capabilities.unpublish |
    | AuthAccount/PublicAccount.getCapability | Account.capabilities.get |
    | AuthAccount/PublicAccount.getCapability with followed borrow | Account.capabilities.borow |
    | AuthAccount.getLinkTarget | N/A |

:sparkles: Example

Assume there is a Counter resource which stores a count, and it implements an interface HasCount which is used to allow read access to the count.


access(all)
resource interface HasCount {
    access(all)
    count: Int
}

access(all)
resource Counter {
    access(all)
    var count: Int

    init(count: Int) {
        self.count = count
    }
}

Granting access, before:

transaction {
    prepare(signer: AuthAccount) {
        signer.save(
            <-create Counter(count: 42),
            to: /storage/counter
        )

        signer.link<&{HasCount}>(/public/hasCount, target: /storage/counter)
    }
}

Granting access, after:

transaction {
    prepare(signer: auth(Storage, Capabilities) &Account) {
        signer.save(
            <-create Counter(count: 42),
            to: /storage/counter
        )

        let cap = signer.capabilities.storage.issue<&{HasCount}>(/storage/counter)
        signer.capabilities.publish(cap, at: /public/hasCount)
    }
}

Getting access, before:

access(all)
fun main(): Int {
    let counterRef = getAccount(0x1)
        .getCapabilities<&{HasCount}>(/public/hasCount)
        .borrow()!
    return counterRef.count
}

Getting access, after:

access(all)
fun main(): Int {
    let counterRef = getAccount(0x1)
        .capabilities.borrow<&{HasCount}>(/public/hasCount)!
    return counterRef.count
}

External Mutation Got Improved

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

A previous version of Cadence (“Secure Cadence”), attempted to prevent a common safety foot-gun: Developers might use the let keyword for a container-typed field, assuming it would be immutable.

Though Secure Cadence implements the Cadence mutability restrictions FLIP, it did not fully solve the problem / prevent the foot-gun and there were still ways to mutate such fields, so a proper solution was devised.

To learn more about the problem and motivation to solve it, please read the associated Vision document.

:information_source: Description

The mutability of containers (updating a field of a composite value, key of a map, or index of an array) through references has changed:

When a field/element is accessed through a reference, a reference to the accessed inner object is returned, instead of the actual object. These returned references are unauthorized by default, and the author of the object (struct/resource/etc.) can control what operations are permitted on these returned references by using entitlements and entitlement mappings.

This improvement was proposed in two FLIPs:

To learn more, please consult the FLIPs and the documentation.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

As mentioned in the previous section, the most notable change in this improvement is that, when a field/element is accessed through a reference, a reference to the accessed inner object is returned, instead of the actual object. So developers would need to change their code to:

  • Work with references, instead of the actual object, when accessing nested objects through a reference.
  • Use proper entitlements for fields when they declare their ow struct and resource types.

:sparkles: Example

Consider the below resource collection:

pub resource MasterCollection {
    pub let kittyCollection: @Collection
    pub let topshotCollection: @Collection
}

pub resource Collection {
    pub(set) var id: String

    access(all) var ownedNFTs: @{UInt64: NonFungibleToken.NFT}

    access(all) fun deposit(token: @NonFungibleToken.NFT) { ... }
}

Earlier, it was possible to mutate the inner collections, even if someone only had a reference to the MasterCollection. e.g:

var masterCollectionRef: &MasterCollection = ...

// Directly updating the field
masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.id = "NewID"

// Calling a mutating function
masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.deposit(<-nft)

// Updating via the reference
let ownedNFTsRef = &masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.ownedNFTs as &{UInt64: NonFungibleToken.NFT}
destroy ownedNFTsRef.insert(key: 1234, <-nft)

Once this change is introduced, the above collection can be re-written as below:

pub resource MasterCollection {
    access(KittyCollectorMapping)
    let kittyCollection: @Collection

    access(TopshotCollectorMapping)
    let topshotCollection: @Collection
}

pub resource Collection {
    pub(set) var id: String

    access(Identity)
    var ownedNFTs: @{UInt64: NonFungibleToken.NFT}

    access(Insert)
    fun deposit(token: @NonFungibleToken.NFT) { /* ... */ }
}

// Entitlements and mappings for `kittyCollection`

entitlement KittyCollector

entitlement mapping KittyCollectorMapping {
    KittyCollector -> Insert
    KittyCollector -> Remove
}

// Entitlements and mappings for `topshotCollection`

entitlement TopshotCollector

entitlement mapping TopshotCollectorMapping {
    TopshotCollector -> Insert
    TopshotCollector -> Remove
}

Then for a reference with no entitlements, none of the previously mentioned operations would be allowed:

var masterCollectionRef: &MasterCollection <- ...

// Error: Cannot update the field. Doesn't have sufficient entitlements.
masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.id = "NewID"

// Error: Cannot directly update the dictionary. Doesn't have sufficient entitlements.
destroy masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.ownedNFTs.insert(key: 1234, <-nft)
destroy masterCollectionRef.ownedNFTs.remove(key: 1234)

// Error: Cannot call mutating function. Doesn't have sufficient entitlements.
masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.deposit(<-nft)

// Error: `masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.ownedNFTs` is already a non-auth reference.
// Thus cannot update the dictionary. Doesn't have sufficient entitlements.
let ownedNFTsRef = &masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.ownedNFTs as &{UInt64: NonFungibleToken.NFT}
destroy ownedNFTsRef.insert(key: 1234, <-nft)

To perform these operations on the reference, one would need to have obtained a reference with proper entitlements:

var masterCollectionRef: auth{KittyCollector} &MasterCollection <- ...

// Directly updating the field
masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.id = "NewID"

// Updating the dictionary
destroy masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.ownedNFTs.insert(key: 1234, <-nft)
destroy masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.ownedNFTs.remove(key: 1234)

// Calling a mutating function
masterCollectionRef.kittyCollection.deposit(<-nft)

Nested Type Requirements Got Removed

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

Nested Type Requirements were a fairly advanced concept of the language.

Just like an interface could require a conforming type to provide a certain field or function, it could also have required the conforming type to provide a nested type.

This is an uncommon feature in other programming languages and hard to understand.

In addition, the value of nested type requirements was never realized. While it was previously used in the FT and NFT contracts, the addition of other language features like interface inheritance and events being emittable from interfaces, there were no more uses case compelling enough to justify a feature of this complexity.

:information_source: Description

Contract interfaces can no longer declare any concrete types (struct, resource or enum) in their declarations, as this would create a type requirement. event declarations are still allowed, but these create an event type limited to the scope of that contract interface; this event is not inherited by any implementing contracts. Nested interface declarations are still permitted, however.

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 118.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Any existing code that made use of the type requirements feature should be rewritten not to use this feature.

Event Definition And Emission In Interfaces

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

In order to support the removal of nested type requirements, events have been made define-able and emit-able from contract interfaces, as events were among the only common uses of the type requirements feature.

:information_source: Description

Contract interfaces may now define event types, and these events can be emitted from function conditions and default implementations in those contract interfaces.

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 111.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Contract interfaces that previously used type requirements to enforce that concrete contracts which implement the interface should also declare a specific event, should instead define and emit that event in the interface.

:sparkles: Example

Before:
A contract interface like the one below (SomeInterface) used a type requirement to enforce that contracts which implement the interface also define a certain event (Foo):

contract interface SomeInterface {

    event Foo()
 // ^^^^^^^^^^^ type requirement

    fun inheritedFunction()
}

contract MyContract: SomeInterface {

    event Foo()
//  ^^^^^^^^^^^ type definition to satisfy type requirement

    fun inheritedFunction() {
			  // ...
        emit Foo()
    }
}

After:
This can be rewritten to emit the event directly from the interface, so that any contracts that implement Intf will always emit Foo when inheritedFunction is called:

contract interface Intf {

    event Foo()
 // ^^^^^^^^^^^ type definition

    fun inheritedFunction() {
       pre {
          emit Foo()
       }
    }
}

Force Destruction of Resources

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

It was previously possible to panic in the body of a resource or attachment’s destroy method, effectively preventing the destruction or removal of that resource from an account. This could be used as an attack vector by handing people undesirable resources or hydrating resources to make them extremely large or otherwise contain undesirable content.

:information_source: Description

Contracts may no longer define destroy functions on their resources, and are no longer required to explicitly handle the destruction of resource fields. These will instead be implicitly destroyed whenever a resource is destroyed.
Additionally, developers may define a ResourceDestroyed event in the body of a resource definition using default arguments, which will be lazily evaluated and then emitted whenever a resource of that type is destroyed.

This improvement was proposed in FLIP 131.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Contracts that previously used destroy methods will need to remove them, and potentially define a ResourceDestroyed event to track destruction if necessary.

:sparkles: Example

A pair of resources previously written as:

event E(id: Int)
resource SubResource {
		let id: Int
	  init(id: Int) {
	      self.id = id
	  } 
    destroy() {
       emit E(id: self.id)
    }
}
resource R {
   let subR: @SubResource
   init(id: Int) {
      self.subR <- create SubResource(id: id)
   } 
   destroy() {
      destroy self.subR
   }
}

can now be equivalently written as:

resource SubResource {
    event ResourceDestroyed(id: Int = self.id)
		let id: Int
	  init(id: Int) {
	      self.id = id
	  } 
}
resource R {
   let subR: @SubResource
   init(id: Int) {
      self.subR <- create SubResource(id: id)
   } 
}

New domainSeparationTag parameter added to Crypto.KeyList.verify

Click here to read more

:bulb: Motivation

KeyList’s verify function used to hardcode the domain separation tag ("FLOW-V0.0-user") used to verify each signature from the list. This forced users to use the same domain tag and didn’t allow them to scope their signatures to specific use-cases and applications. Moreover, the verify function didn’t mirror the PublicKey signature verification behaviour which accepts a domain tag parameter.

:information_source: Description

KeyList’s verify function requires an extra parameter to specify the domain separation tag used to verify the input signatures. The tag is is a single string parameter and is used with all signatures. This mirrors the behaviour of the simple public key signature verification.

:arrows_counterclockwise: Adoption

Contracts that use KeyList need to update the calls to verify by adding the new domain separation tag parameter. Using the tag as "FLOW-V0.0-user" would keep the exact same behaviour as before the breaking change. Applications may also define a new domain tag for their specific use-case and use it when generating valid signatures, for added security against signature replays. Check the signature verification doc and specifically hashing with a tag for details on how to generate valid signatures with a tag.

:sparkles: Example

A previous call to KeyList’s verify is written as:

let isValid = keyList.verify(
    signatureSet: signatureSet,
    signedData: signedData
)

can now be equivalently written as:

let isValid = keyList.verify(
    signatureSet: signatureSet,
    signedData: signedData,
    domainSeparationTag: "FLOW-V0.0-user"
)

Instead of the existing hardcoded domain separation tag, a new domain tag can be defined, but it has to be also used when generating valid signatures, e.g. "my_app_custom_domain_tag".

:arrow_right: Related

FT / NFT Standard changes (Still WIP)

Click here to read more

The Fungible Token and Non-Fungible Token Standard interfaces are being upgraded to allow for multiple tokens per contract, fix some issues with the original standards, and introduce other various improvements suggested by the community.

Original Proposal: http://forum.flow.com/t/streamlined-token-standards-proposal/3075

Fungible Token Changes PR: WIP: V2 FungibleToken Standard by joshuahannan · Pull Request #77 · onflow/flow-ft · GitHub

NFT Changes PR: https://github.com/onflow/flow-nft/pull/126

The changes and the FLIP are still a work in progress, so the expected actions that developers will need to take are not yet finalized, but it will involve upgrading your token contracts with changes to events, function signatures, resource interface conformances, and other small changes. More examples coming soon.

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Amazing work and very good post. Love the examples!

3 Likes

Congrats Bastian.

1 Like

Excellent, love this Bastian!

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Outdated

A new version of the Flow CLI preview build for Cadence 1.0, is now available (v1.5.0-stable-cadence.2 ). This latest preview build includes the following major features, that were not included in the previous build:

  • “Account Access Got Improved”
  • “External Mutation Got Improved”
  • “Nested Type Requirements Got Removed”

To install use the below commands:

Linux/macOS

sudo sh -ci "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.sh)" -- v1.5.0-stable-cadence.2

Windows (in PowerShell):

iex "& { $(irm 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.ps1') } v1.5.0-stable-cadence.2"
3 Likes
Outdated

A new version of the Flow CLI preview build (M1) for Cadence 1.0 is now available: Release v1.9.2 (Cadence 1.0 M1) · onflow/flow-cli · GitHub

This preview release now contains all changes and features of Cadence 1.0.

To install, run the below command:

  • Linux/macOS

    sudo sh -ci "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.sh)" -- v1.9.2-stable-cadence.1
    
  • Windows (in PowerShell):

    iex "& { $(irm 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.ps1') } v1.9.2-stable-cadence.1"
    
1 Like
Outdated

A new version of the Flow CLI with for Cadence 1.0 M4 is now available:
Release v1.12.0 (Cadence v1.0.0-M4) 2 · onflow/flow-cli · GitHub

To install, run the below command:

  • Linux/macOS

    sudo sh -ci "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.sh)" -- v1.12.0-cadence-v1.0.0-M4-2
    
  • Windows (in PowerShell):

    iex "& { $(irm 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.ps1') } v1.12.0-cadence-v1.0.0-M4-2"
    
2 Likes
Outdated

A new version of the Flow CLI with for Cadence 1.0 M7 is now available:
Release v1.12.0 (Cadence v1.0.0-M7) · onflow/flow-cli · GitHub

To install, run the below command:

  • Linux/macOS

    sudo sh -ci "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.sh)" -- v1.12.0-cadence-v1.0.0-M7
    
  • Windows (in PowerShell):

    iex "& { $(irm 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.ps1') } v1.12.0-cadence-v1.0.0-M7"
    
2 Likes
Outdated

A new version of the Flow CLI with for Cadence 1.0 M8 is now available:
Release v1.12.0 (Cadence v1.0.0-M8) · onflow/flow-cli · GitHub

To install, run the below command:

  • Linux/macOS

    sudo sh -ci "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.sh)" -- v1.12.0-cadence-v1.0.0-M8
    
  • Windows (in PowerShell):

    iex "& { $(irm 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/master/install.ps1') } v1.12.0-cadence-v1.0.0-M8"
    

Hey everyone! Users wanting to install the latest versions of the Cadence 1.0 CLI can now do so as follows:

Linux/macOS

sudo sh -ci "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/feature/stable-cadence/install.sh)"

Windows (in PowerShell):

iex "& { $(irm 'https://raw.githubusercontent.com/onflow/flow-cli/feature/stable-cadence/install.ps1') }"

The Cadence 1.0 CLI will now be available on your system as flow-c1. You can interact with this CLI using this command, i.e.

flow-c1 help

Any existing previous Flow CLI installation will still remain available via the flow command.

You may upgrade your flow-c1 CLI installation at any time by running the installation command again.

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